Juglans regia is a species of deciduous tree commonly known as the Persian walnut or English walnut. It is native to the region stretching from the Balkans to the Himalayas and southwestern China. The tree can grow up to 25-35 meters tall and has a broad, rounded crown.
The leaves of Juglans regia are pinnate and can have 5-9 leaflets. The male and female flowers are on separate trees, and the female flowers develop into edible nuts that are enclosed in a hard, round shell. The nut is surrounded by a fleshy green husk that splits open when the nut is mature. The walnut kernel is rich in oil, protein, and minerals, and is a popular food worldwide.
Juglans regia has a long history of use in traditional medicine for various ailments, and its bark, leaves, and nuts are believed to have therapeutic properties. The tree is also valued for its high-quality timber, which is used for furniture, paneling, and veneer.
Juglans regia is commonly cultivated in temperate regions worldwide, including Europe, North America, and Asia. It is a valuable crop, with the largest producers of walnuts being China, the United States, and Iran. The tree requires a well-drained soil and prefers a sunny position. It is susceptible to several diseases, including walnut blight and walnut anthracnose.