Betula nana, commonly known as dwarf birch or bog birch, is a deciduous shrub that belongs to the family Betulaceae. It is native to arctic and cool temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, including North America, Europe, and Asia.
The shrub typically grows up to 1-2 meters tall and has multiple stems with dark brown bark. The leaves are small and ovate, measuring around 1-2 cm long, and have a serrated edge. The flowers are small and arranged in catkins that bloom in the spring. The fruit is a small nutlet enclosed in a woody cone.
Dwarf birch is commonly found in boggy or wetland areas, but can also grow in dry tundra and rocky areas. It is an important food source for many species of wildlife, including moose, caribou, and grouse. Additionally, it has been used by indigenous peoples for various medicinal purposes, including as a treatment for skin ailments and as a diuretic.
Overall, Betula nana is an ecologically and culturally important species in the regions where it grows.